The Mapmakers from the ice age

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For a long time, I have been puzzled by the very ancient and accurate maps studied by Charles H. Hapgood in " Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, evidence of advanced civilization in the ice age.". One of those maps includes practically the whole earth: it's a map that belonged in the XVIth century to the Turkish Admiral Re'is. Hapgood has shown that the original map has been drawn using a trigonometrical method according to a polar projection centered on the Assouan area. The pole of that projection was exactly at the intersection of the Tropic of Cancer and of the Meridian of Alexandria. On the following map, the pole is marked by the letter X (in this study, I'll call this pole the "X point"). I have then laid the following work hypotheses: These hypotheses have enabled me to emphasize a surprising planetary schema, with the help of the following maps.
The first map is a Mercator projection. The second map is built according to the principle of a stereographic projection centered on the point X (intersection of the meridian of Alexandria and of the tropic of Cancer). From this point, I have traced the circumferences the radiuses of which equal 36, 72 (2x36), 108 (3x36) et 144 (4x36) degrees.

We notice that:

This order can be inverted if you choose the antipode of the point X as pole. This antipode Y is situated in the Austral Islands (French Polynesia) on the Tropic of Capricorn, near the Raïvavae Island, where statues looking like those of Easter Island were discovered.


In other words, each of those eleven sites can be associated with a very easy to be found star the declination of which equalled, in 9650 BC, the latitude of the place in question.
On the scheme, I've chosen the colour green to represent, for each site, a segment of the parallel along which the zenith culmination of the indicated star could be seen (as well as the latitude of this parallel).
To this list, I could have added the phenomenons observed in the site of the Egyptian mesolithic observatory of Nabta. I don't possess the accurate coordinates of this megalithic site. However, I have tried to determine approximately those coordinates from informations published in May 1998 on the Internet. This site would be situated at a latitude approaching 22d30' North, 1d30' in the south of the point X (the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer equalled 24d in 9650 BC) . This means that the star Alpha2 Librae ( Zuben Elgenubi ) culminated there in the zenith in 9650 BC. Indeed, the declination of that star equalled, at the time, 22d 19' (SkyMap program). Moreover, an observer in Nabta could watch, at that time, the heliacal rising of Alpha2 Librae a week before the summer solstice. So, Zuben Elgenubi played the part which was to be Sirius's 7000 years afterwards.

Four extraordinary alignments

General rule : those alignments take into account one pair or two pairs of antipodes present on the preceding diagrams. -----------------------------------------------------------------

Moreover, the golden ratio seems to play a part in those alignments.

Diagram

Ux-X-Na = 39. 8822d
CC-X-Na = 63. 2466d
63. 2466 / 39. 8822 = 1. 586
1. 586 = phi - 0. 032

And last but not least, all the angular distances are MULTIPLES OF 12d (mean error = 1. 04d).

Coordinates

SITES Latitude Longitude Distance (centre:24d;30d) Stars Declination in 9650 BC Magnitude Zenith angle (culmination)
Stonehenge 51. 18d -1. 82d 36. 53d (0. 53d) alpha Boo (Arcturus) 50. 7d -0. 04 0. 48d
Carnac 47. 48d -3. 08d 35. 23d (-0. 77d) alpha Ser (Unukalhai) 47. 67d 2. 8 0. 19d
Mohenjo-Daro 27. 35d 68. 17dd 34. 43d (-1. 57d) eta Peg (Matar) 27. 15d 2. 9 0. 20d
Gaocheng 34. 42d 113. 17d 71. 37d (-0. 63d) alpha UMa (Dubhe) 34. 13d 1. 95 0. 29d
Angkor Vat 13. 43d 103. 87d 70. 03d (-1. 97d) alpha Vir (Spica) 13. 72d 0. 98 0. 29d
Chaco Canyon 36. 07d -107. 95d 107. 99d (- 0. 01d) gamma UMa (Phecda) 36. 03d 2. 4 0. 04d
Uxmal 20. 37d -89. 77 106. 48d (-1. 52d) alpha Sco (Antares) 20. 52d 0. 96 0. 15d
Tikal 17. 33d -89. 63d 108. 07d (0. 07d) delta Sgr (Kaus Media) 17. 25d 2. 8 0. 08d
Copan 14. 83d -89. 15d 109. 03d (1. 03d) zeta Sgr (Ascella) 14. 80d 2. 7 0. 03d
Machu Picchu -13. 12d -72. 57d 106. 63d (-1. 37d) alpha PsA (Fomalhaut) -13. 38d 1. 2 0. 26d
Nazca -14. 75d -75. 08d 109. 48d (1. 48d) alpha Pav -15. 40d 2. 1 0. 65d
Easter Island -27. 12d -109. 35d 143. 37d (-0. 63d) alpha Hya (Alphard) -27. 62d 2. 2 0. 50d

Calculations

You can yourself calculate the angular distance between two sites with the help of a Java applet .

With three sites at the vertices A, B, C of a spherical triangle, you can calculate the angle A between two great circles with this applet java . (You need to calculate the angular distances between those sites with the preceding program). A small angle indicates an "alignment".

You can also calculate the declinations of the stars with the help of this applet

Probability calculations

About Uxmal

It should be mentioned that Antares (alpha Scorpii) reached its highest declination in -9500. Therefore, the zenith distance of that star, seen from Uxmal, was inferior to 0. 5d between -10250 and -8600. I think this stability may have been observed by travellers (mapmakers?) coming from elsewhere because Scorpius is the only "Chaldean" (pre-Chaldean?) constellation of the Mayan zodiac.

CONCLUSIONS :


As for the maps studied by Charles H. Hapgood, the presence of those geodetic (and symbolic?) reference points seems to indicate that a brilliant civilization travelled throughout the world during the tenth millenary Before Christ.

LINKS

The French page has been translated into English by Francine Godefroid. I thank her heartily for her Kind collaboration.

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Please, e-mail to : jean.pierre.lacroix@skynet.be

Jean-Pierre LACROIX
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©1998 Jean-Pierre Lacroix